Blooms do not occur under complete mixing of the water column (Bormans et al. The water body was classified as eutrophic throughout the study, and the details of water quality, thermal stratification, and the trophic status are discussed in the following sections. The reservoir eutrophication condition was investigated based on Carlson’s index, which indicated that the reservoir was in the eutrophic condition in most months of the year. For the present study, the wind factor was considered as 2% of wind speed (cm/s). Wells. The temperature lapse was observed to be 0.8, 1.1, 4.4, and 3.0 during months January, February, March, and April of 2015 (Table 1), respectively. & Haritash, A.K. This may also be attributed to zooplankton grazing and/or limitation of nitrogen. Warm monomictic: Lakes that circulate freely during the winter, having a stable thermal stratification during the summer. The formulae for calculating the TSI values where SD is Secchi depth (m), Chl is chlorophyll (mg/m3), and TP is total phosphorus (mg/l) are as follows: The following equation can be used to compute the CTSI: Data of wind speed (u) of the study area were taken from the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) for the months of January 15 to April 15. However, the thermal stratification is disappeared and mixing condition However, the thermal stratification is disappeared and mixing condition happens in the reservoir by approaching the winter. The higher value of TSI-TP compared to TSI-Chl indicated that zooplankton grazing or limitation of nitrogen plays a role in limiting eutrophication and algal growth. Denominator of Eq. Microscopic view (100×) of Ceriodaphnia spp. of Civil Engineering, Isfahan Univ. 1998; Haritash et al. Managing water quality even of shallow ponds is ecologically important to maintain its water quality especially in respect of eutrophication and sustain natural ecosystem within it. 2). Wind-induced current was empirically calculated, for wind speeds between 100 and 500 cm/s “the wind factor (current speed/wind speed) decreased linearly with wind speed”. Such thermal stratification occurs because of the large differences in density (weight) between warm and cold waters. Although the wind velocity may be higher during summer, stronger thermal stratification can be formed due to temperature difference between upper layer and lower layer resulting in lower mixing of surface epilimnion, which may be a cause of concern if dissolved phosphate levels are high. 2010). The value of buoyancy frequency (N) and Richardson number (R) indicated complete and strong mixing in surface epilimnion due to the temperature, wind velocity, and current speed during the study with relatively stronger stratification and lower surface mixing during early summer (March–April). Chlorophyll was calculated by using following equation given by Arnon (1949). During stratification, algal … In order to achieve average water quality, the pond was divided into 09 grids, and a sample was collected from each grid to evaluate the spatial variations, if any. When the strong thermal stratification is formed in the summer months, it could prevent or slow the exchange of water in the epilimnion and hypolimnion, which could induce water quality deterioration in the bottom because of anoxia in the hypolimnion. In addition, two management scenarios, reduction of nutrients loads and reaeration of the hypolimnion, were evaluated to mitigate the eutrophication. LET's Aeration Technologies ensure that proper mixing delivers guaranteed results that meet effluent limits. Now the lake attains temperature uniformity from top to bottom. The concentration of available and total phosphate was observed to be significantly high considering its potential (more than 1.0 mg/l) for eutrophication. The samples were characterised for pH, oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), available phosphate (AP), total phosphate (TP), nitrogen (as nitrate and total Kjeldahl nitrogen TKN), calcium, magnesium, chlorophyll (Chl), Secchi depth (SD) as per standard methods in triplicates using analytical grade (AR) chemicals and ultrapure (type I) water. Was considered as 2 % of wind speed ( cm/s ) induced density (. Turbulent mixing for R < 0.25 there were some spatial and temporal differences for trophic state for. Thermal stratification of lakes into three layers Reddy ( 1997 ) stable depends... 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